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Teaching Other Subjects Through English. Author: Sheelagh Deller and Christine Price (). Publisher: Oxford: Oxford University Press. Teaching Other Subjects Through English (Resource Books for Teachers) [ Sheelagh Deller, Christine Price] on xumodaperma.ml *FREE* shipping on qualifying . A government policy to teach mathematics and science through English in Indonesia In Indonesia the teaching of other subjects through English takes es/xumodaperma.ml, .

Yes, to the point of being cartoonish. Exaggerate things, your facial expressions and movements. Doing this will not only help convey the meaning, it will help maintain the interest and attention of your class. Use images. Use images that feature interesting elements, exploding colors and relatable characters. For example, if the lesson is about food, bringing the ingredients and demonstrating how to slice, dice and toss it will be much better than showing pictures, much less trying to gesture about the ingredients and actions.

Scaffolding Just as in construction, scaffolding in the educational context is essentially about support. Scaffolding is you taking your students by the hand and slowly but surely pointing them to the light, all with their individual skill levels in mind. Pre-teaching vocabulary gives your students a leg up by offering words and concepts in manageable pieces before actually embedding them in the main lesson.

What does that mean exactly? It all depends on your class and individual students. Do they need a little hand holding? Just be sure to continue speaking in the target language throughout the mini-lesson. Direct translation This is a scaffolding as well as a time-saving teaching technique. I know that CLIL, as a totally immersive experience, is encouraging teachers to use the target language in the conduct of classes, but in instances when you feel giving a direct translation would get students unstuck, then do it.

It would still be much better for students to discover for themselves the meanings of words and concepts, because the brain retains the information it has worked for much better, but if you feel giving the direct translation would outweigh this benefit, then do so.

Review: Teaching Other Subjects Through English

For example, in an Italian class with art as the subject of interest, you can provide your students with a one-page handout that profiles a famous painter, his life and works. After some time reading and wrestling with the Italian text, you process the material by giving students a written activity e. In the aftermath of that activity, you give students another handout, this time in English, that allows them to review and check how much they understood.

One way of doing this is by giving them hands-on, language-related tasks or games that can only be completed by using the target language. Show and tell This has become a classic classroom activity because it compels student engagement with both the subject and the language. For example, you can ask each student to talk about the subject in their own words—using the target language, of course. This way, instead of being an unnerving exercise, this can actually be a confidence-building one. This is a very healthy attitude in CLIL, as well as any other type of language teaching and learning.

Role playing You can also let the students work in pairs or groups and present a little bit of role playing. A two-minute presentation is really more than enough. This activity has the dual purpose of serving as language practice and, at the same time, apprising you, the teacher, of what students have learned.

This is also a good way of encouraging students to come out of their shells. So what are you waiting for? The particles that make up a hot object have more energy than the particles that make up a cold object. If the hot particles get the chance, they will pass on their energy to colder particles.

This process is called conduction. Particles which are close to each other pass heat energy from the hot particles to the cold particles. Conduction happens best in solids as the particles are close together. It also happens in liquids but to a lesser extent, and hardly at all in gases.

Heat energy can also be transferred from one place to another by convection. Convection is different from conduction because the particles in the substance actually move taking the heat energy with them. They do not pass on the heat energy as in conduction. It should be easy to see that convection happens most easily in liquids and gases where the particles can move around much more freely than in a solid. Heated particles within a liquid or gas always rise taking the heat energy with them.

Possible questions 1 In which direction does heat transfer—from cool to hot or from hot to cool? They must not write down the questions. However, they must guess the answer to each one and write it down.

They do not have to write whole sentences. Point out that it does not matter if they guess wrongly— this process is just to get them thinking. They may discuss questions with a partner. Then they re-formulate the original questions and write them down, leaving a space after each one for the answer.

Check their questions. They write down the correct answers, individually or in pairs. Com m ents If step 5 is done as a reading it could be a homework activity. Acknow ledgem ents Information taken from www. A Simplifying the text Some possible strategies: Heat energy always travels from the hot object to the cooler object. The particles in a hot object have more energy than the particles in a cold object. Hot particles can pass on their energy to colder particles. Particles which are close to each other pass on heat energy from the hot particles to the cold particles.

It happens less in liquids, and almost never in gases. Heat energy can also transfer from one place to another by a process called convection.

Convection is different from conduction because the particles actually move taking the heat energy with them. Convection happens most easily in liquids and gases, where the particles can move around much more freely than in a solid.

When asking the questions you could help them by writing the keywords on the board. Example 1 cool to hot? There are examples of these in Appendix 2. The name 'Aztec' came from a mythical place to the north called Azatlan, but they also called themselves Mexica.

A central part of the Aztec religion was to offer human and animal sacrifices. The highest honour for warriors was to offer themselves as a human sacrifice, or to die in battle. It is believed that the Aztecs used the fruit of the cacao tree to make delicious chocolate. In the 16th century the Spanish, led by Hernan Cortez, invaded and destroyed their empire.

Questions 1 Where did the Aztec people live? Acknowledgem ents Text adapted from www.

They focus on getting away from the teacher-led method of giving information. This makes life easier for you and for the learners. When taking in complicated information in another language, students need to be given help to understand the important concepts.

They need to be actively involved and given tasks which will enhance their understanding. The activities in this chapter are a mixture of reading and listening tasks. There is even one non-verbal task, 1. Some of the listening tasks, such as 1. We have included a number of different strategies and study skills which the students need to develop.

Many of the activities in this section also lead into an output stage where the students write or speak about the new input they have been given. In this example the questions are in the past. Write examples on the board. See the example below.

Give them a time limit about 7 minutes to tell each other what they know about the topic and then to write a question about it that they want answered. They write their questions on the board. Correct any mistakes. If necessary they write their questions in the mother tongue. You then help them translate the questions into English. Example Possible student questions: Pablo Picasso What nationality was he?

Did he have children? When did he live? Where did he live? What materials did he use? What is the name of his mostfamous painting? The class try to answer it. While they are listening they should tick any of the questions they think you have answered. If they are right, they come to the board and rub off their question. They go through the questions in their notebooks and answer any they can.

Alternatively, ask the students to find the answers for their homework. Materials Coloured card or paper. This could be from the coursebook. Either record it, or use it as a dictation. Mount the copies on different coloured paper or card and then cut them up so there is one keyword or phrase on each slip.

Example Plastics Plastics are man-made materials. Plastics have taken the place of traditional materials like woods and metals. Plastics differ from other materials largely because of the size of their molecules. Most materials have molecules made up of fewer than atoms. Plastics contain thousands of atoms. We call them macromolecules. Some plastics are derived from natural substances such as animals, insects and plants but most are man-made. These are named synthetic plastics.

Most synthetic plastics come from crude oil but coal and natural gas are also used. When crude oil is refined, gases are given off. The gases are broken down into monomers. These are chemical substances consisting of a single molecule.

Thousands of these are linked together in a process called polymerisation to form new compounds called polymers. Give students time to read and help each other understand them. They can ask you for help and use dictionaries. While you read out the text they must place the key words in the order in which they hear them.

They may hear some words twice but they place the card the first time they hear a word. Read or play the text again. This does not have to be word for word as the original. Variation This could be a student-generated activity. They take turns to read their texts while the others order the key words.

Acknowledgem ents Text taken from www. Materials Overhead projector or screen. Make the gaps big enough to write in the missing words or letters. Example There are four main factors of production, known as resources, that are used to produce the economy's goods and services. These are land, labour, capital, and enterprise. All businesses need land to create their products. Businesses may use the land as in agriculture, build on it, extract raw materials from it, or rent or download it for their factories, offices, and warehouses.

Businesses employ people to make and market their products: Businesses need to invest money in machinery, equipment, and buildings; this investment is called capital. The entrepreneur owns the business and takes the chance that his or her product will be a success; these people are also known as risk-takers. Tell the students that you are going to read the text to them. Divide the board in half and ask the students to read out their words. Write these on one side of the board. Add and explain any new words from your key word list that are not on the board.

Discuss the expressions and translate into the mother tongue. Ask the students to listen but not write anything down. Now tell the students to write down any of the words and phrases they hear while you are reading, but not to make notes about the text. Give the groups time to compare their individual lists. Tell the students they can work together to build up the text. Explain that they can send members of their group to ask other groups for help, but they must not ask you for help.

Give the students time to work on the text. When they have a gap they nominate someone from another group to continue. Ask students to write down the key words and expressions from the text and take it in turns to explain them to their partners.

Follow -up Ask the students to write sentences using the expressions from the board as homework. Subject Any Preparation Prepare and practise reading aloud a short talk on the topic you want to tell your students about. Procedure 1 If you have a large class call the front row A and the row behind them B. Repeat this sequence with the remaining rows.

If you have a small class arrange them into one A row with one B row sitting behind them. All the students must be facing you. The A rows are the listeners and must not write anything down.

The B rows are the writers and can take as many notes as they like. The As tell the Bs what they can remember from listening to the talk.

They need to help the As to remember more, but they must not just read out all their notes. Give the rest of your talk. Repeat step 5 with Bs recalling what they heard, helped by the As from their notes. What are the advantages and disadvantages of each? Comments It is all too easy to get into the mode of mindless note-taking. Some students love taking notes and others do not. We are all different but sometimes it is useful to try another method to check that what we are doing is really helping us.

Acknowledgm ents This activity is adapted from an idea from Simon Marshall. M aterials Slips of paper—one for each search section. Demo subject s p o r t s s c i e n c e t o p i c Aerobic training A lternative l i t e r a t u r e Epic poetry subjects b u s i n e s s s t u d i e s Company reports p h y s i c s Detailed text about nuclear power Preparation 1 Find a text and make sure each student has a copy. Keep a note of the source for the students.

Example Key points list 1 An aerobically fit individual can work longer, more vigorously, and achieve a quicker recovery.

Follow the Authors

Frequency, duration and intensity. Remove the numbering. Mix the slips up so that they do not follow the order of the text. Procedure 1 Put the students into groups of three or four. Give a copy of the text to each student. The messenger holds the information in their head and goes back and tells their group what they read. If the slip is in the mother tongue the group must translate it into English.

They number and underline it on their text. Keep up a reasonable pace, and encourage the students to work quickly by saying, for example: As quickly as you can, please.

Which groups are readyfor the next? OK, next one coming up. They may remember only the key words on the slips. This sets the key words in their minds. Variation You can use pictures, diagrams, charts, and graphs in place of words on the slips to represent particular sentences or parts of sentences. Acknow ledgem ents Text adapted from www. M aterials Eight large cards—one for each section title; sheets of paper—one for each student; slips of paper optional.

Demo subject f o o d t e c h n o l o g y t o p i c Food preservation A lternative p h y s i c s Properties of matter subjects d e s i g n a n d t e c h n o l o g y Health and safety in the workplace r e l i g i o u s s t u d i e s The Sikh nation Any subject your students need Preparation 1 Find a suitable text. Keep one complete copy for yourself and divide the other copy into logical sections. Photocopy each of the sections three times. With this topic the sections could be: This is to make it easy for groups of students to have room to stand and read the texts.

Pin the sections up under the appropriate title. Write the same title in the mother tongue under it. Get the students to suggest as many areas of the subject as possible, for example, refrigeration, pickling, canning. Write these on the board. If students use their mother tongue, write the English equivalents underneath. Then add from your original list any the students have not mentioned. In the case of refrigeration, the idea is to slow bacterial action to a crawl so that it takes food much longer perhaps a week or two, rather than half a day to spoil.

In the case of freezing, the idea is to stop bacterial action altogether. Frozen bacteria are completely inactive. A bag of frozen vegetables will last many months without spoiling. Refrigeration and freezing are used on almost all foods: In general, refrigeration has no effect on a food's taste or texture. Freezing has no effect on the taste or texture of most meats, has minimal effects on vegetables, but often completely changes fruits which become mushy. Refrigeration's minimal effects account for its wide popularity.

Give each student a sheet of paper and tell them to fold it into three parts horizontally. Put the students into groups with a maximum of six. Tell each group which text section to read. Explain that you will give them a time limit. Ask the students to go and read the text. They do this individually. As they read, each student writes down information under the three headings on their paper. When the time limit is up ask the students to return to their groups and pool their information.

Each group presents their information to the rest of the class. An example of this is While each group is presenting, the others make notes.

The groups write possible examination questions about their text area on slips of paper— one slip per question. The groups display these questions by the appropriate texts. Give the students time to move from text to text and write down some or all of the possible questions. Alternatively, you can give a copy to each student.

M aterials Sheets of paper for the prepared text extracts. Demo subject s c i e n c e t o p i c Making copper chloride A lternative p s h e How the European Parliament works subjects m u s i c Jamaican music d e s i g n a n d t e c h n o l o g y Shaping plastics—injection and extrusion Vocabulary for any subject Preparation 1 Find or write a short text. Example This is how we get copper chloride to crystallize. First of all add copper carbonate to a jar containing hydrochloric acid.

Wait until the fizzing stops. Then filter the solution through filter paper into a flask. This removes the unreacted copper carbonate and gives a copper chloride solution.

The next thing to do is to pour the copper chloride solution into an evaporating dish. Put the dish on top of a beaker which has some water in it. Place the beaker on a tripod and heat it until the first crystals begin to appear. Remove the heat and leave the solution for a few days for the copper chloride to crystallize.

There should be enough parts for each student in a group to have one. Type or write the prepared text in the parts, writing the number 1 next to the beginning. Do not write any other numbers. Example 1 This is how we get copper chloride to crystallize. In the example above you have five slips for one circle of five students. Duplicate enough sets of five slips for the class. Procedure 1 Write the text title on the board.

Write up any difficult words or phrases from the text and give the translation in the mother tongue. Ask students to listen and repeat the English. Give out the slips. Ask students to read their slips to each other. They must keep their own slips of paper.

Tell them that the student with slip number i has the beginning of the text. Ask them to work out the correct order of the text and to stand in that order. Then get the rest of the group to read their slips in their chosen order to check that they are correct. They do this in their groups. The whole class listens and checks.

Do this with another group to give them time to check, hold and anchor the information in their minds. Give out copies of the text, one for each student. Each student writes a question about the text. Use different coloured paper for each text. Alternatively use different fonts. Each student should have a copy of both texts.

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M aterials One slip of paper per student. Demo subject l i t e r a t u r e t o p i c Periods of literature A lternative s c i e n c e s The steps involved in an experiment subjects h i s t o r y The order of events, monarchs, battles m a t h e m a t i c s The steps to solve a specific calculation Any subject which involves a sequence or order Preparation Write out the steps of the sequence you want your students to learn.

Procedure 1 Show on the board the steps you want your students to memorize. Number them. Give the students time to try to memorize the correct order. Example Periods of Literature 8 7 Postmodern 6 Modern 5 Victorian Romantic 4 3 Enlightenment 2 Renaissance 1 Medieval Classical 2 Put students into groups of the same number as the steps that you want them to memorize. In this example they will be groups of eight. Number the students If you have more than eight students in a group two can share a number.

If you have seven students, you can give one student two consecutive numbers. Check each group. If a student makes a mistake, student 1 starts again from the beginning. They continue like this until they have managed to get through the whole sequence at least twice without making a mistake. They mix them up and each student in the group takes one. This time they must stand and say the step on their piece of paper at the appropriate time. Ask the students to write the different periods on a staircase in their books.

M aterials Two sets of slips of paper; an overhead projector or electronic whiteboard. Demo subject m u s i c t o p i c The orchestra A lternative h i s t o r y An historical family tree: Photocopy one text per student or pair of students, or project it onto a screen.

Put it on the board for the students to copy or project it onto a screen. Group A will be approximately one third of the class. They can be duplicated so that everyone gets one.

Group B will be approximately two-thirds of the class. Make sure you have at least one instrument to match each section of the orchestra. If you have a large class instruments can be duplicated. The largest section is the string section, which includes the violins, violas, cellos and double bass.

The first violins are on the conductor's left with the second violins in the next triangle. The violas are immediately in front of the conductor and the cellos are on the right of the conductor in front of the double basses. The next biggest section is the woodwind section. The flute section is behind the violas, next to the second violins, and the oboes are next to them.

The clarinets are behind the flutes, with the bassoons behind the oboes.

The brass section comprises French horns, trumpets, trombones and tubas. They sit behind the woodwind section with the French horns behind the clarinets, the trumpets in the middle and the trombones and tubas together on the right. The percussion section is across the middle at the back. If a harp is needed it goes on the left of the conductor at the back of the first violins.

Procedure 1 Ask the class to read the text. Give them an appropriate time limit to take it in. Take away the text from Group A. There must be at least one student per slip. They go and stand with other A and B students in the correct section. They then tell each other as much as they can about their section or instrument.

Put the students into threes one A and two Bs who work together to fill in the blanks and check their information. Com m ents The first time you use this activity it will need some time to prepare, but you will be able to use it with many different classes. M aterials A thermometer; a lidded jar big enough to hold the thermometer; a small piece of steel wool; vinegar. Demo subject C HEM ISTRY t o p i c An experiment demonstrating a chemical reaction Alternative h i s t o r y Sequencing events subjects f o o d t e c h n o l o g y Sequencing a simple recipe d e s i g n a n d t e c h n o l o g y Making an origami figure Preparation 1 Find a set of instructions and re-write them in a jumbled order.

Wrap the steel wool around the bulb of the thermometer. Procedure 1 Write a sentence on the board introducing the topic, but leaving a gap for the missing topic word or words. Ask the class to guess the words, in this example, chemical reaction. The only words they will hear will be: Waitfive minutes. Tell them to watch very carefully. Example The following is the correct order: Wrap the steel wool around the bulb o f the thermometer. Ask the students to reorder them correctly based on their memory of your demonstration.

They write the numbers by the appropriate stage. It rises because the vinegar removes any protective coating from the steel wool, allowing the steel to rust. When this happens, heat energy is released. Ask them to guess by how much it will rise. Tell them to check the temperature on the thermometer before they begin. They can check the accuracy of their guesses by seeing how much the temperature has risen at the end of the experiment. The text was adapted from www.

Demo subject t o p ic Computing terms A lternative l i t e r a t u r e Learning a poem or quotes subjects h i s t o r y Learning the dates of important events m a t h e m a t i c s Learning theorems or formulae Any subject in which students need to learn information by heart Preparation 1 Find or write a short text or series of definitions that are important for your students to memorize. Example Data Factual information used as a basis for reasoning, discussion, or calculation.

Digital A method of encoding information using a binary code of Os and 1s. Hardware Machinery and equipment such as the monitor, the mouse, and the processor.

ICT system A set up consisting of hardware, software, data, and the people who use them.


Scanner A device that reads a printed page and converts it into a graphics image for the computer. Software Instructions for a computer. Software tells the hardware what to do. Procedure 1 Write the definitions on the board, leaving a space above each one to add the keywords.

Invite students to come to the board and write the matching key word above each definition. If necessary translate them into the mother tongue. Ask the students to repeat after you to focus on the pronunciation. Then get the students to read all the sentences again, including the part you rubbed out. Com m ents If there are key words, as in this example, it is better to leave them on the board. If there are no key words it seems to help if there are dashes to indicate each line.

Procedure 1 Write the title o f your topic on the board. Example Vladimir Ilyich Lenin 2 Put the class into groups o f not more than four. Ask them to tell each other what they already know about the topic. You will repeat each one. Every time you stop speaking, one student in each group has to echo to their group exactly what you said. The first time this will be student 1, then student 2 and so on.

Alternatively, in a mixed-ability class the echoer could be the highest level student. Read the first sentence twice clearly. The students 1 in each group repeat it, all at the same time. The groups then repeat it back.

Continue in the same way until you have read all the sentences. Example i Lenin was bom in in Russia. Materials One piece of paper, preferably A4, per student. Label them A , B , C but in random order. In this example the A students have the shortest sentences and the C students the longest, making it suitable for mixed levels. Example Voyager 1 A3 Voyager 1 is a spacecraft. C4 It has travelled 12 billion km to the edge of our solar system.

At This long trip has taken 30 years. B3 even though it travels at mph. C2 It will take a further years to reach the Oort Cloud. Ci This cloud consists of comets that surround our solar system. Bi Our nearest star is twice as far away as the Oort Cloud. A2 It is called Proxima Centauri.

B4 We will need new modes of space travel to reach this star. C3 There are a number of possibilities but none has been tried as yet. A4 One idea is to use nuclear power. B2 However, this is veiy controversial. Procedure 1 Divide the class into 3 groups, A, B and C. Ask them to cut or tear it horizontally into four strips. Tell the class you are going to give them a dictation with a difference. They only write down the information if you say their letter, and each time they write they use a different slip of paper.

In this way they will be writing four sentences each. Write up and explain any other words you think may be unfamiliar. Start with Ai, followed by Bi and Cl, then A2 and so on. In larger classes there can be a number of smaller groups sharing the same letter. They check their sentences and send their messenger to you if they have any gaps or differences. They must all end up with exactly the same sentences.

When they have finished checking, you check one set of papers for each group and that student tells their group any corrections you have made. If there is more than one student of the same letter, they need to use only one of their sets of papers. Suggest they choose the set that is easiest to read. Alternatively, give everyone a copy of the original.

Variation 2 It can also be done as a student-student dictation. Acknowledgem ents Information taken from www. Materials Photocopies of the worksheets. On one sheet write the A sentences, leaving the B lines blank. Do the reverse on the other sheet. The easiest way to do this in a larger class is to label alternate rows A and B. They can do this with other students who have the same sheets. Explain to them that later they may need to explain their sentences to someone else.

If you have alternate A and B rows each A can now work with the B student behind them. Tell them not to let their partner see their sheet.

Student B writes it in their first A line. Remind them to dictate the full stops. Student B then dictates their first sentence and Student A writes it in their first B line. They continue like this until they have completed the dictation, and filled in all their lines. Comments Making students work for the information, rather than just giving them a handout, helps them understand and retain it.

Subject Any text your students need to read in a monolingual class. Preparation 1 Choose any informative text your students need to read in English. Procedure 1 Give your students a short time just to skim through the English text.

Ask the class to read out the equivalent English sentence from the text. Looking at the English text, they take it in turns to translate a sentence, part of a sentence or a few words into their mother tongue. Their partner reads out the equivalent English from the text. Aim s la n g u a g e Building vocabulary.

Demo subject h is t o r y to p ic The Wright brothers Alternative g e o g r a p h y Any text concerning constituents of soils subjects p h y s i c s Any text explaining electron beams a r t Any text on the life and style of a great artist Vocabulary for any subject Preparation 1 Find a text.

In the example below the historical information has been simplified and the present tense has been used. Write down key words or dates from the text. Photocopy the gapped text, one for each student. Keep a copy of the complete text for your own reference. Procedure 1 Write the title of the text on the board and give the students time to discuss with a partner what they know about the subject.

You can write the meanings of these words in the mother tongue. Get the students to listen and repeat the words. Leave the words on the board, drawing a line to keep them separate. They must listen carefully but not take notes. Read the text the first time. After you have done so write the key words in random order on the rest of the board. In the early 20th Century flying is a new idea.

It is exciting and dangerous. The American brothers, Orville and Wilbur Wright, build seven flying machines before they are successful. They crash many times. They build and rebuild their machines. They study gliders and try to find a way to control an aircraft. In they build a glider with wings and a tai that are flexible. The Wright brothers begin to plan a powered machine. They ask engine manufacturers to help with engines and propellers, but they are not successful.

In they design and build their own engines and propellers which are better. In France other inventors are trying to win the race to be the first to fly a powered and controlled flying machine. On October 5, Wilbur Wright makes the first controlled flight.

He flies for 39 minutes and goes 24 miles The Wright brothers win the race. The aeroplane is invented. Example In this text the underlined words would be the gaps. The words in bold are the words to pre-teach before reading.

Set a time limit depending on the ability of the class. The students work individually to fill the gaps. Pause at the gaps and ask students to say the missing words. Follow -up Ask the students to find out as much as they can about the history of aviation using the Internet, magazines, or textbooks. The information they collect can be used in another lesson for group presentations or exam practice questions. It is often the case that students learning another subject through English do not even know the meanings of these subject words in their mother tongue, which makes the vocabulaiy learning even more difficult for them.

The activities in this chapter are designed both to teach the meanings and to give the students the opportunity to learn and memorize them. Students need to build a bank of subject-related words and to do this they need training in how to store them on the page, as in 2. A crucial skill is to be able to understand and give definitions and descriptions of words.

There are examples of this in 2. In addition there are activities focusing on key vocabulary in Chapter 1, where we need to help students understand the vocabulary in a reading or listening text. Many classroom activities designed to help students learn vocabulaiy are created by the teacher, but the designing of these activities is in itself a good way to focus on the meaning and use of words.

For this reason we have included some student-generated activities such as 2. For teachers with monolingual classes there are also some activities such as 2. Demo subject b io l o g y t o p ic Human biology—parts of the body A lternative b u s i n e s s s t u d i e s Business terms and abbreviations subjects p h y s i c s Electronic control h i s t o r y 20th Century explorers Preparation Write lists of related words and add to each list one word which is not related.

Example A retina, optic nerve, sacculus, iris B masseter muscle, condyle, radius, temporalis muscle C scapula, carpals, femur, phalanges, ulna D fibula, tibia, sternum, patella E pancreas, coronary artery, left ventricle, pulmonary artery Procedure 1 Tell the students to write down all the words you dictate. Dictate the first list.

Ask the students to work in pairs to check their spelling. Check the spelling with the class. For example, The sacculus is the odd one out because it is in the ear and the others are in the eye. Check with the other students that they agree. In pairs, the students test each other on spellings and the meanings. Answ er key Odd ones out A sacculus: B radius: C femur: D sternum: E pancreas: Variation Give out copies of the lists instead of dictating them.

Materials Photocopied worksheets; lists of words. Example Worksheet 2. Give out the blank worksheets. Do the same for group B with a different set of words. If the groups are large you may need more than one list of the words for each group.

Do the same with pairs of student Bs. Give them time to think about the definitions. They do not write anything down. Tell them not to show each other their worksheets. Tell them they have to define the words on their list for their partners to guess. They must not say the actual word when they are defining it.

At the end of the activity the students check and discuss the definitions which gave them problems.

Ask them to write down the problem words and suggest how they could be defined. Materials Two slips of paper for each student; a small rigid container such as a cardboard or plastic box for each group. Put the students into groups of no more than eight. Give each group a container. Example Marketing Terms 3 Explain the rules. This could be done in the mother tongue. Rules Each student writes two different expressions to do with the subject, one on each slip.

These can be anything to do with the subject. They do not show or tell the other group members what they have written. They fold the slips to hide the writing and put them into the group container.

It does not matter if a term is duplicated. Examples market research, marketing mix, market share, market penetration, market trend, shrinking market, flat market, niche market, domestic market, segmented market, flooded market, market leader 4 Choose a student in each group to start the activity. The student takes out one of the slips from the container, reads it silently and gives a definition without using the words written on the slip.

If the student does not know the word, they replace it in the container and take another one. They can speak in any order. If the group fails to guess correctly from the definitions given, the slip is returned to the container for another student to pick out later. The activity continues until all the definitions have been matched and all the slips removed from the container, or the time limit is reached. Then the students fold all the slips again and put them back in the container.

This speeding up increases the fun element. The text could be completely new to your students or one they have seen before in their textbook. Example Keywords: Vegetation— cacti, deep or wide roots, thick bark Procedure 1 Write the title o f the text on the board. Discuss the title with the students. Draw a box round each key word and leave enough space between the boxes to add the example words given in the text.

The Sahara, in north Africa, is the largest hot desert in the world. Deserts have very high temperatures all year. At night the temperature falls dramatically. Because of the constant high air pressure there is very little rain. On average, deserts get less than mm of rain each year. Desert soils are not very fertile. The soils look grey and are thin with little organic matter. The water evaporates quickly and salt builds up on the soil surface. However, deserts do have vegetation.

The plants adapt to the climate. Some have thick, waxy skins as this helps reduce water loss. Others grow deep, wide roots. The trees protect themselves against fire with thick bark. Cacti can keep water in their fleshy stems. The deserts also have wildlife. Camels, dingoes, kangaroos, snakes, lizards, spiders and termites are some species that have adapted to the desert environment. People have managed to live in deserts for many thousands of years.

They knew how to survive without damaging the ecosystem. Modern farming practices are changing the desert ecosystems. Overgrazing is causing soil erosion, and the soil is becoming salty as a result of irrigation. Deserts are getting bigger. Tell the students you will read the text twice. Do the first reading. Do not discuss the text with the students.

Write the example words by the side of the matching key word boxes and draw lines connecting them. Do not discuss the examples with the students. Read the text the second time. Tell the students that they have two minutes to memorize the examples.

Ask the students to work alone, copy the key words and write the examples they can remember. Students copy what is on the board for future reference. Materials Picture to be labelled. Ask them to make a list of the words from the board in any order they like, and then to number them. Now they match the words to their picture by writing the appropriate numbers on the picture. If they have any problems they must get you to check. The pairs re-order the letters and then write the matching number from the picture next to each word.

Comments The process of jumbling and re-ordering the words is a good way to help students memorize them. In fact they probably learn as much from creating the activity as they do from working on the activity they have been given.

Other Memorizing key words. Example area, average, coordinates, graph, hypotenuse, numerator, quotient, intersection, integer, equation, denominator, isosceles 2 Put them in a chart in any order, as below. These could be done in the mother tongue. Stress that they all need to write the clues, because they will be on their own in the next step. Tell them not to let their partner see their chart. They write the answers in their chart. Comments As with many activities, students probably learn more from writing the clues than from guessing the answers.A number of different issues have emerged from the study see Coleman b, c.

Procedure Lesson 1 1 Show your text examples. Desert soils are not very fertile. Immersion programme teaching is undertaken by both Korean and native speaker teachers. For this reason we have included some student-generated activities such as 2.

Even your eyes can speak. Teguh Ramadhan. Hovercraft—more difficult definition This type of transport was invented by Christopher Cockerell in the mid s.

They mix them up and each student in the group takes one. Example If you want to know what desertification is and how it works, then this is the article you should read.