Principles of Polymer Chemistry by Paul J. Flory - Free ebook download as PDF File .pdf) or read book online for free. Where earlier editions covered organic polymer chemistry, the third edition covers Pages PDF · Physical Properties and Physical Chemistry of Polymers. Download Book (PDF, KB). Book Principles of Polymer Chemistry Physical Properties and Physical Chemistry of Polymers · A. Ravve · Download.
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Principles of Colloid and Surface Chemistry, Second Edition, Revised and Seymour/Carraher's Polymer Chemistry: An Introduction, Fourth Edition, Revised. Principles of Polymerization, Fourth Edition Types of Polymers and Polymerizations / 1 .. Polymer chemistry has advanced to the point where it is. International Standard Book Number (eBook - PDF) The sixth edition of the book Principles of Polymer Systems contains new Ferdinand Rodriguez is professor emeritus of chemical engineering at Cornell.
Pages Physical Properties and Physical Chemistry of Polymers. Free-Radical Chain-Growth Polymerization. Ionic Chain-Growth Polymerization. Ring-Opening Polymerizations.
Ravve A. Principles of Polymer Chemistry
Common Chain-Growth Polymers. Naturally Occurring Polymers. Organic Reactions of Polymers.
Polymeric Materials for Special Applications. Chain rupture caused by shear is polymerization of methyl methacrylate;13 polymeriza- characterized by a limiting molecular weight. This new polymerization process has cal force to build up and reach the level necessary to Figure 2. Collapse of a cavitation bubble, producing a shear gradient left , and the shear gra- dient, able to stretch and break polymers right. Ultrasonic scission of poly methyl methacrylate, end capping with a nitroxide radi- cal, and subsequent nitroxide-mediated polymerization of styrene.
Chain scission can lymerization setup for the production of homopolymers result in either homolytic or heterolytic bond cleavage. Yet some of the identity of the end groups formed by the breakage the initial homopolymer remained present after nitro- of poly methacrylic acid.
When they sonicated the xide end capping. Furthermore, because of the pres- polymer in the presence of styrene, a polymerization ence of residual nitroxide, homopolymers of the new was initiated, giving rise to block copolymers of poly monomer were also formed. Through selective precipi- methacrylic acid and polystyrene and at the same tations, the pure block copolymer was isolated. However, during the sonication trasonic degradation of polyacrylamide and combined step, monofunctional and bifunctional macroinitiators this with the ultrasound-induced polymerization of ac- can form because the chain can be broken more than rylonitrile in water.
Polyacrylamide chains were broken once. In the following polymerization step, this will with ultrasound in the presence of acrylonitrile, and then lead to AB and ABA block copolymers, assuming block copolymers were prepared in this way. Another way of producing block copolymers in- The production of block copolymers with ultrasound volves the reaction of two macroradicals. High-molecu- styrene was sonicated together with several poly alkyl lar-weight polymers are required to form macroinitia- Scheme 2.
Scission of a polystyrene chain, leading to primary and secondary macroradicals. More recently, Moore et al. To reduce this depicted in Figure 4.
For certain prop- linked polymer. There- demonstrated with an off-center azo-functionalized poly- fore, ultrasound may be employed as a useful tool in ethylene glycol 2b. Poly- material properties. In contrast to scission in regular polymers, this proce- A disadvantage of using macroradical initiators is that dure yields macroradicals of low polydispersity.
The the chemical structure of the radicals is not uniform. In authors are currently studying the system as an alterna- simple vinyl polymers, such as acrylates and styrene, tive for thermally induced or photoinduced reactions. The composition of the product higher selectivity can be obtained between covalent mixture is even more complex when polymers with and noncovalent bonds in supramolecular polymers. Although ultrasound will preferentially is discussed in the following section.
This was shown by Encina et al. Vinylpyrroli- done was polymerized with AIBN in the presence of When monomers in a polymer chain are connected by oxygen-generating polymer 1 see Scheme 3. This noncovalent interactions, supramolecular polymers are caused some of the radicals to react with the oxygen obtained.
Com- mers are a special class of supramolecular polymers in paring the viscosity reduction of the peroxide-contain- which the monomers are connected by ligand-to-metal Figure 4. Poly ethylene glycol polymers with a centered azo linkage 2a and an off-center azo linkage 2b. Schematic representation of the equilibrium between rings and chains. Although the literature on coordi- high and the equilibrium shifts toward high degrees of nation polymers in the solid state is extensive, the polymerization, giving rise to mechanical properties number of reversible linear coordination polymers is typical for entangled polymers see Fig.
Network structures can be made with metal centers that coordinate more than two ligands. At a concentration of erties of the polymer, can easily be altered to generate 1. Reversible coordination polymers are This solution was sonicated for 1 h, and during the equilibrium systems, and so cyclic and linear species experiment, samples were analyzed with size exclusion interconvert.
Theory on cyclization40,41 shows that chromatography see Fig.
Upon sonication, the such systems are characterized by a critical concentra- molecular weight distribution shifted toward lower tion. Below this concentration, only cyclic oligomers masses.
Interestingly, leaving the mixture standing for are present, whereas above this concentration, all the a day caused the ring-chain equilibrium to revert to its additional material leads to the formation of linear original composition.
The equilibration kinetics of species with a concentration-dependent degree of poly- coordination polymer 4a have a half-life of approxi- merization.
To form high-molecular-weight polymers, mately 13 h. Furthermore, Figure 6. Coordination polymers based on diphenylphosphine 4a and dicyclohexylphosphine 4b , telechelic polytetrahydrofuran, and palladium II dichloride. Furthermore, because the liberated phos- manently broken, and this means that the polytetrahy- phine ligands rapidly react with stopper molecules, cy- drofuran chains remain intact.
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This also implies that clization and redistribution reactions are suppressed, only the reversible palladium—phosphorus bonds are bro- and size exclusion chromatography can now be used ken.
The use of mixed ligand complexes in catalytic reactions such as hydrogenations has received much To perform chemistry with ultrasound-induced ligand attention lately. Moreover, by sonicating during lymer lengths this results. Therefore, a new method of quenching the broken polymers was developed.
In the presence of a kinetically labile palladium II dichloride bis do- decyldiphenylphosphine complex 5 , heterocomplex formation can occur only when the dicyclohexylphos- phine ligands are dissociated through ultrasonic scis- sion.
The process is schematically depicted in Figure 9. Upon the formation of a heterocomplex, the polymer chain is terminated and cannot repolymerize. Because Figure 8. Ultrasonic scission of kinetically stable coordination polymer 4b and subsequent end capping with kinetically labile palladium II dichloride bis dodecyldiphenylphosphine com- plex 5. Although ultrasound has been used for many decades in synthetic polymer chemistry, techniques such as ultrasound-induced polymerizations or block copoly- mer formation have not yet reached industrial maturity.
Cravotto, G. Chem Soc Rev , 35, — Matyjaszewski, K. J Phys Colloid Chem on an industrial scale.
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Principles of Polymer Design and Synthesis
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Lecture Notes. Effects on Processing and Product Application Example: Polypeptide Synthesis: Need help getting started? Don't show me this again Welcome!Adv Polym Sci , From to , he worked as a postdoctoral research fellow with Professor Fred Correspondence to: R. A polymer can be described in many ways: its degree of polymerisation , molar mass distribution , tacticity , copolymer distribution, the degree of branching , by its end-groups , crosslinks , crystallinity and thermal properties such as its glass transition temperature and melting temperature.
Reading the warning labels that describe what happens when the chemical comes in contact with skin or eyes or is ingested will emphasize the need for chemical resistance in the plastic packaging. Chem Soc Rev , 35, — Authority control GND: Bartsch, M. Monomers, Polymers and Composites from Renewable Resources.