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As with the Angolan anthem it is focused on the future. Like the Brazilian anthem, the focus is on the already existing land and not on what might be built there. Instead of the Southern Cross, the sea, the lovely fields and forests of the New World you have the dust of the bare island, the sea and the stars RB 91 and It would not be surprising if the Cape Verdeans had looked across the Atlantic for guidance.
The Janus-face of Cape Verdean nationalism has adjusted its gaze. This was written - words and music - by the musician and writer Justino Sigaulane Chemane. When Chemane died in January his funeral was at- tended by the Mozambican President, Joaquim Chissano who delivered the funeral address. However, this new anthem had a long history and which is described at some length by Mia Couto.
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In Machel had recognized that the old anthem had emerged out of the military struggle, was too partisan and did not work for the nation Felinto 3—4.
Certainly the writers and musicians were commanded and shut away in a residence in Matola with the task of producing an anthem before they were released: however they considered it an honorable patriotic duty and enjoyed a luxu- rious, well-fed, life with servants and a swimming pool at a time of great shortages in Mozambique.
Years later, in , following the transition to democracy it became imperative to have a new anthem so an open competition was held with Couto as one of the judges. However the entries were all very weak and they decided to revisit the anthems from Felinto 3—4.
The music of this second Mozambican anthem has a much more African feel than many of the other anthems and is rather similar to the new South African the former African National Congress song Nkosi Sikeleli Africa. The music is non-militaristic, non-aggressive, rather sad and contemplative in contrast to the belligerent anthems of the imperial powers.
Indeed such anthems are rare in the world, with only Austria, and the small island groups of Nauru Micronesia and Saint Vincent and the Grenadines West Indies having anthems which were written by women. All these an- thems are non-belligerent hymns gently praising their countries. She has been a member of the government at various times since independence including minister for education and culture between and Like Borja in Timor, Cabral and Chemane, she had used poetry to express protest and the struggle against colonialism.
Almeida born in was the composer RB although many Portuguese-based web-sites give the role to Quintero Aguiar for example, Lusotopia 2. Gerhard Seibert has provided some interesting detail here: Prior to independence on 12 July there was a combat song in local Cre- ole that was similar to the current anthem.
However, as the Romanians did not understand the Creole, the San- tomeans considered the result unsatisfactory. They asked Barreto de Sousa W This was done at the eve of Independence Day Seibert Whatever the full story might be, we have another example here of a cooperative effort where a national anthem had some international midwives along the route to the first performance at independence.
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It remains a socialist anthem focused on the future. East Timor: Heroes of the Liberation Twice. It is supposed to be sung in Portuguese with no official Tetum translation timorcrocodilovoador. As with the Angolan anthem this is a revolutionary anti-imperialist song, singing of the heroes of the liberation and the defeat of the colonialists. Borja had the Portuguese in mind but no doubt other in- vaders were envisaged when the anthem was performed in Soares 2.
In singing their an- them the people of Timor are now free to proclaim their attachment to the nation even if the revolutionary words of the poet are not quite in keeping with the neo-liberal world into which East Timor finally emerged. Conclusions As I have suggested, performance matters in identity formation so that na- tional anthems, which require the subject to perform, are an essential part of the nation-building project.
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The national anthems from the New Lusophone Worlds carry a complex history and, like many others, they reflect the ide- ologies and themes of the era of independence, in this case the mids. God is not mentioned at all.
This may be seen as a link to the Republican anthem of the former colonial master and seems to be the one consistent, colonial inheritance. What clearly emerges from this more detailed study of Lusophone anthems is the collective nature of their production, especially in the composition of the music.
Perhaps governments prefer simple stories and are complicit in this erasure of a wider cooperative effort, whilst writers and musicians with close ties to the ruling parties have tended to inflate their W As part of this collective effort, composers from Communist states, including China, Romania and East Germany have been found con- tributing to the anthems of Lusophone Africa. Where there is a collective effort in writing the lyrics, such as happened for the new Mozambican an- them, one might expect this to result in a collage of the themes which one usually finds in national anthems; the special nation, blessed by God, with great heroes etc.
However, as has been shown, this is a characteristic of most anthems and it would be difficult to differentiate the collective efforts from those which have written by one person.
However, the majority of the revo- lutionary anthems of these New Lusophone Worlds, written by well-known national poets and writers do have a tight unity of purpose fostered by the Afro-Marxist ideology of the time and which is missing from many other post-colonial African anthems. Indeed the very closeness of the writers and composers to the new leaders is a marked characteristic. These anthems clearly reflect the Janus-face of nationalism.
Despite plans to change - or to label an anthem as temporary - the majority remain social- ist and revolutionary songs, still looking to build a utopian future by the hands of the people, and celebrating the heroes of independence. This may explain how for years after the demise of the socialist and Afro- Marxist regimes the original anthems have survived.
Where new anthems have been introduced, it took many years for the change to take place, in the case of Mozambique some twenty years from the first recognition that a new anthem was required. Although the new Mozambican anthem remains a product of the early s, and the struggle for independence is still remembered, it is a less parti- san anthem than the previous song of praise to FRELIMO and was designed to appeal to all the people of Mozambique.
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In the case of East Timor, just the chorus is performed as an emphasis on an anti-imperial struggle does not suit the new rulers. Thus, these few anthems W There has been a move away from revolution to reflection, coincid- ing with the abandonment of socialism and should a new Angolan anthem emerge it will be interesting to see if it follows this pattern.
Socialist regimes were more concerned with the collective, with the povo, whilst the market- driven liberal world is focused on the individual who nevertheless shares the same history, the same land and sees the same landscapes as his or her fellow citizens.
These new anthems are not necessarily apolitical, as compla- cently praising the characteristics of the national territory perhaps leaves space for the agents of capitalism to get on with their work.
Notes 1. Rather like the stamp-collecting community, there is a large epistemic group of national-anthem experts, mostly male, who collect the anthems via the internet in various downloadable forms, display the lyrics, sheet music and discuss their origins.
Cerulo measures sociopolitical control by looking at international control, domestic control, formal control how authoritarian and some additional factors 89— In all later references RB will refer to Reed, W.
Bristow eds. National Anthems of the World. Tenth Edition.
London: Cassell. I have witnessed this in both Cameroon and Nigeria. See NationalAnthems.
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Accessed 9 May In he also wrote a Hino do infante D. Henrique for four military bands and performed for the th birthday centenary celebrations of D. Henrique in W Note that the famous postage stamps of , the first commemorative stamps issued anywhere in Europe, were also produced for this occasion Cusack I. For more on the Angolan, Marxist Homen novo see Cusack, Accessed 29 May These songs, as the years went by, were more and more sung by women Brinkman.
RB —6. I would like to thank Katja Osswald for this translation. Note Althusser, Louis. Cosin ed. Education: Structure and Society. Anderson, Benedict. Imagined Communities.
Reflections on the Origin and Spread of Nationalism. Revised edition. London: Verso, Key Concepts in Post-Colonial Studies.
London: Routledge, Billig, Michael. Banal Nationalism. London: Sage, Brinkman, Inge ed. Bristow, Michael Jamieson. Brookshaw, David. Lisa Jesse. Burness, Donald. Six writers from Angola, Mozambique and Cape Verde. Washington: Three Continents Press, Butler, Judith. Gender Trouble. Feminism and the Subversion of Identity. Cerulo, Karen A. Chisano, Joaquim Alberto.
Couto, Mia. Extraido do Vertical No. Culler, Jonathan. Literary Theory. A Very Short Introduction. Oxford: OUP, Cusack, Igor. Cusack, Tricia. Davidson, Basil. Harmondsworth: Penguin, Elections Results. Not dated. Freidin, Gregory. Gellner, Ernest. Nations and Nationalism. Oxford: Blackwell. The Origins of the Angolan Civil War. Foreign Intervention and Domestic Political Conflict. Basingstoke: MacMillan, Himno nacional de Guinea Ecuatorial. Hyde, Christian and Richard Trillo.
London: Rough Guides Ltd, Penguin: — Leite, Ana Mafalda. London: Hurst, Lusotopia: Hino Nacional de S.
Kendall, David. National Anthem Reference Page. Follow link to country. The Politics of Nationalism and Ethnicity. Basingstoke: Macmillan. Coventry: The Heaventree Press, Moorman, Marissa J. Mozambican anthem, new, at www. Newitt, Malyn. A History of Mozambique. Niner, Sarah.
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